John Doole. Although crotal bells were possibly first used in antiquity, surviving examples that can reliably be dated before the medieval period are rare. For other uses, see Bell disambiguation. See also HistoryPetal Bellsand Crotals. The only way to tell that is through metallurgy lab tests. The hobby and its detractors.
Close dating is often difficult, unless the bells can be associated with a maker whose period of operation is known from documentary sources. The two men worked together until the late s, when Edward II retired and it was decided to close the foundry. This is an iterative process in which metal is removed from certain parts of the bell to change certain harmonics. William was succeeded by his son, Edward I, who, on his death inleft the foundry to his sons, Richard and Edward II. The difference in appearance, however, between many earlier post-medieval bells, and the majority of later ones is such that it warrants comment, as it plays a part in their dating.
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